The Official Blog of the Piqua Shawnee Tribe
|Posted on December 18, 2017 at 8:15 AM|
So live your life that the fear of death can never enter your heart
Trouble no one about their religion; respect others in their view, and
demand that they respect yours. Love your life, perfect your life, beautify
all things in your life. Seek to make your life long and its purpose in the service
of your people.
Prepare a noble death song for the day when you go over the great divide.
Always give a word or a sign of salute when meeting or passing a friend, even
a stranger, when in a lonely place. Show respect to all people and grovel to none.
When you arise in the morning give thanks for the food and for the joy of living.
If you see no reason for giving thanks, the fault lies only in yourself. Abuse
no one and no thing, for abuse turns the wise ones to fools and robs the
spirit of its vision.
When it comes your time to die, be not like those whose
hearts are filled with the fear of death, so that when their time comes they
weep and pray for a little more time to live their lives over again in a different way.
Sing your death song and die like a hero going home.
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Tecumseh " target="_blank">http/en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Tecumseh
|Posted on December 14, 2017 at 12:40 PM|
NCAI Urges Senate Leadership to Reauthorize CHIP and SDPI
On December 11th, 2017, NCAI sent the attached letters to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY) and Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) urging them to promptly reauthorize the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and the Special Diabetes Program for Indians (SDPI).
Both programs were reauthorized until September 30th, 2017 by the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA, Public Law 114-10). While CHIP is currently expired, SDPI was extended until December 31st, 2017 through the Disaster Tax Relief and Airport and Airway Extension Act. CHIP and SDPI have had positive impacts in Indian Country and failure to reauthorize these programs jeopardizes the great strides that have been made in ensuring American Indian and Alaska Native children are insured and decreasing the rate of diabetes and diabetes-related complications in Indian Country.
NCAI Contact Info: Josh Pitre, Senior Policy Analyst, [email protected]
Read the CHIP Letter
Read the SDPI Letter:
|Posted on December 13, 2017 at 9:55 AM|
NCAI Tax Reform Update
December 8, 2017
Tax Reform Update
On December 2, the Senate passed its tax reform bill, which means the House and Senate must now resolve the differences between their bills. The Senate bill does not include any tribal provisions while the House bill has one tribal provision that would treat the loan repayment benefits offered by the Indian Health Service the same as loan repayment benefits offered by other public sector health services providers for purposes of income taxes.
Last week, both the House and Senate voted to go to conference and named their conferees. Once the conferees negotiate the final package, each chamber will hold a vote. We expect the House vote to occur early next week, and the Senate vote to occur after the House vote and before the end of the week.
On December 6, NCAI and NAFOA sent a joint letter to the conferees expressing the need to include tribes. Additionally, because changes made during conference must be related to the bills being conferenced, NCAI prepared a memorandum analyzing how tribal tax priorities are related to provisions currently being considered in the House and Senate bills.
Tribes, NCAI, and other organizations continue to urge Congress to include Indian Country in the final tax reform package.
A chart of House and Senate conferees is available
The NCAI-NAFOA letter is available
The NCAI memorandum is available
NCAI Contact Info: Jacob Schellinger, Staff Attorney & Legislative Counsel, [email protected]
|Posted on December 12, 2017 at 9:20 AM|
Blackfish (c. 1729-1779) Shawnee Leader
Little is known about him, since he only appears in written historical records during the last three years of his life, primarily because of his interactions with the famous American frontiersmen Daniel Boone and Simon Kenton.
When the Shawnees were defeated by Virginia in Dunmore's War in 1774 , the resulting peace treaty made the Ohio River the boundary between western Virginia (what is now Kentucky and West Virginia) and American Indian lands in the Ohio Country. Although this treaty was agreed to by Shawnee leaders such as Cornstalk, Blackfish and a number of other leaders refused to acknowledge the loss of their traditional hunting grounds in Kentucky.
Violence along the border escalated with the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War in 1775. As a result, the Chillicothe Shawnees moved their town on the Scioto River further west to the Little Miami River, near what is now Xenia, Ohio. Encouraged and supplied by British officials in Detroit, Blackfish and others launched raids against American settlers in Kentucky, hoping to drive them out of the region. In revenge for the murder of Cornstalk by American militiamen in November 1777, Blackfish set out on an unexpected winter raid in Kentucky, capturing American frontiersman Daniel Boone and a number of others on the Licking River on February 7, 1778. Boone, respected by the Shawnees for his extraordinary hunting skills, was taken back to Chillicothe and adopted into the tribe. The traditional tale is that Boone was adopted by Blackfish himself, although historian John Sugden suggests that Boone was probably adopted by another family.
Boone escaped in June 1778 when he learned that Blackfish was launching a siege of the Kentucky settlement of Boonesborough, which commenced in September of that year. The siege of Boonesborough was unsuccessful, and the Kentuckians, led by Colonel John Bowman, counterattacked Chillicothe the following spring. This raid was also unsuccessful, but Blackfish was shot in the leg, a wound which became infected and was eventually fatal.
Faragher, John Mack. Daniel Boone: The Life and Legend of an American Pioneer. New York: Holt, 1992.
Lofaro, Michael. Daniel Boone: An American Life. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2003.
Sugden, John. "Blackfish" in American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 1999.
|Posted on December 12, 2017 at 7:10 AM|
Tecumseh was born in 1768 near Chillicothe, Ohio. His father, Puckshinwau was a minor Shawnee war chief. His mother Methotaske was also Shawnee. Tecumseh came of age during the height of the French and Indian War and in 1774 his father was killed at the Battle of Point Pleasant during Lord Dunmore’s War. This had a lasting effect on Tecumseh and he vowed to become a warrior like his father. As a teenager he joined the American Indian Confederacy under the leadership of Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant. Brant encouraged tribes to share ownership of their territory and pool their resources and manpower to defend that territory against encroaching settlers. Tecumseh led a group of raiders in these efforts, attacking American boats trying to make their way down the Ohio River. These raids were extremely successful, nearly cutting off river access to the territory for a time. In 1791 he further proved himself at the Battle of the Wabash as one of the warriors who defeated General Arthur St. Clair and his army. Tecumseh fought under Blue Jacket and Little Turtle and the American Indian Confederacy was victorious slaying 952 of the 1,000 American soldiers in St. Clair’s army. St. Clair was forced to resign. In 1794 Tecumseh also fought in the Battle of Fallen Timbers. This decisive conflict against General Anthony Wayne and his American forces ended in a brutal defeat for the American Indian Confederacy. A small contingency of about 250 stayed with Tecumseh after the battle, following him eventually to what would become Prophetstown and a new pan-Indian alliance.
Portrait of the Shawnee military and political leader Tecumseh, ca. 1800-1813. He worked with his brother Tenskwatawa, known as 'The Prophet,' to unite American Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory to defend themselves against white settlers.
Tecumseh’s brother Tenskwatawa joined him at Prophetstown, also known as Tippecanoe in Indiana Territory and in 1808 the two men began recruiting a large multi-tribal community of followers under a message of resistance to settlers, the American government, and assimilation. Tecumseh traveled north to Canada and south to Alabama in an effort to recruit men to his cause. Meanwhile, William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana Territory was negotiating treaties and utilizing American forces to put pressure on those tribes still in Indiana and especially those allied with Prophetstown. In 1809 Harrison, signed the Treaty of Fort Wayne which allotted him a massive amount of American Indian territory thus increasing Tecumseh’s efforts and amplifying his message. Tecumseh was away from Prophetstown on a recruitment journey when Harrison launched a sneak attack now known as the Battle of Tippecanoe. The American forces cleared the encampment and then burned it to the ground. It was a severe blow to the confederacy and a harbinger of war to come.
On June 1, 1812 under the advisement of President Madison, Congress declared war on Great Britain. In the Northwest Territory, American Indian tribes found themselves pulled in two separate directions – side with the British or with the Americans. Tecumseh and his confederacy sided with the British. He and his men were assigned to overtake the city of Detroit with Major General Isaac Brock. The siege of Detroit was a success due in no small part to Tecumseh’s military strategy. He continued to support British efforts under Major-General Procter at the Siege of Fort Meigs. The siege failed and morale waned as a result.
In the fall of 1813 as conditions around Detroit worsened, Procter began a retreat east toward Niagara. Tecumseh requested arms so that his men could stay in the Northwest Territory and continue to defend their lands. Procter agreed to make a stand at the forks of the Thames River. However, when forces reached the site communication broke down and some men deserted while others continued east. When the Americans attacked, large sections of forces broke leaving about 500 hundred American Indians to hold back 3,000 Americans. Tecumseh was fatally wounded in the battle. It is unknown who killed him or what happened to his remains. His death began a rapid decline in American Indian resistance and the War of 1812 is marked as the beginning of removal in the upper Midwest.
|Posted on December 8, 2017 at 1:45 PM|
Tecumseh, Shawnee Leader
Ruled ca. A.D. 1789-1813
Tuesday, July 16, 2013
(The Bridgeman Art Library, The Art Archive at Art Resource, NY)
Tecumseh in an 1881 engraving
Throughout history in many cultures, preserving the physical remains of great figures has been considered vital for religious, cultural, or political reasons. Many Native Americans don’t share that outlook. The burial of Shawnee leader Tecumseh is a case in point. Tecumseh, whose name means “shooting star” or “panther in the sky,” led the Shawnee and a coalition of other native groups in resisting American settlement of the Ohio and Indiana territories in the early nineteenth century. He allied his forces with the English during the War of 1812 but was abandoned by them in 1813, at the Battle of the Thames in what is now Ontario. Refusing to retreat, Tecumseh died leading his outnumbered forces against American troops led by future president William Henry Harrison. According to eyewitnesses, Tecumseh’s slain body was taken up by his warriors, who buried him close to the battlefield.
No record exists of the exact location of Tecumseh’s grave. But Ken Tankersley, a University of Cincinnati archaeologist who is an enrolled member of the Piqua Shawnee and sits on the tribe’s Council of Elders, says that isn’t important. “For indigenous people, and the Shawnee in particular, what’s important is for the dead to ‘make the journey,’ or allowing the body to decompose, creating nutrients in the soil, and thus allow the cycle of life to continue.” Tankersley notes that Shawnee will occasionally visit the battlefield and leave a tobacco offering. “We know where the battle was, and the whole battlefield is considered a sacred site, and that is close enough.” He predicts that protests would erupt if an archaeologist or anyone else ever tried to find Tecumseh’s remains. Even using noninvasive remote-sensing technology to locate the burial would be considered unacceptable, says Tankersley. “No one should ever go looking for Tecumseh.”
|Posted on November 29, 2017 at 8:05 AM|
Shawnee Indians – Kansas Historical Society
Originally from the southern states of Tennessee and South Carolina, the Shawnee Indians moved often before the first group arrived in the Wyandotte and Johnson County area.
In 1825, the Shawnee living near Cape Girardeau, Missouri, were removed from their homes by the United States government and given a tract of land south of the Kansas River and west of the Missouri River. Relocation began in 1826. The 1.6 million acre reservation extended west for many miles, but the Shawnee chose to occupy only a small portion. Few lived west of Lawrence, and the majority remained in Wyandotte and Johnson counties. Their numbers grew when Shawnee from Ohio began arriving later that year.
Item Number: 208379
Call Number: E99 S35.I Pro *2
Holding Institution: Tenskwatawa, The original painting is housed in the Smithsonian American Art Museum.
The spiritual leader Tensquatawa, the Shawnee Prophet, was among the Ohio Shawnee, arriving in 1828. In the early 1800s, Tensquatawa, the younger brother of Shawnee leader Tecumseh, had encouraged an alliance of all Indians against the American encroachment and preached that tribal leaders did not have the right to sign away tribal lands. His message caught on with young members of the tribe, and he developed a substantial following. In 1808 he established a village in Indiana called Prophetstown, and it thrived for three years. When Tensquatawa moved to Kansas, he established a new Prophetstown near the present South 26th Street and Woodend Avenue in Kansas City. His high regard with the Shawnee, however, had waned, and Tensquatawa never regained his status; the new town did not prosper. In the early 1830s he moved to a small cabin near a spring in the present Argentine area of Kansas City, where he died in 1837.
In 1854 the U.S. government reduced the Kansas reservation to 160,000 acres and parceled out the rest of the land in 200 acre allotments. Susan White Feather purchased the property near the spring that was formerly occupied by Tensquatawa, and the site became known as White Feather Spring, the final resting place of the Shawnee Prophet.
During and after the Civil War, white settlers antagonized the Shawnee and a great many were ready to move on by the late 1860s. Some remained on the Kansas reservation, but most of the Shawnee relocated to a Cherokee reservation in Oklahoma.
Learn More by Visiting www.kshs.org/kansapedia/shawnee-indians/19230
Entry: Shawnee Indians
Author: Kansas Historical Society
Author information: The Kansas Historical Society is a state agency charged with actively safeguarding and sharing the state’s history.
Date Created: July 2015
Date Modified: December 2015
|Posted on November 16, 2017 at 8:00 AM|
2010 U.S. Census Report American Indian Populations
UNITED STATES TRIBES & PEOPLE
There are 562 federally recognized tribes in the United States. Of these 229 are located in Alaska and the remainder are spread across 33 other states.
The 2010 U.S. Census reported 2.9 million people with pure American Indian and Alaska Native ancestry. Native Americans of mixed race totaled 2.3 million.
The combined U.S. population in 2010 was 5.2 million American Indians and Alaska Natives. The 5 states with the most population are these:
New Mexico 193,222
For all state populations and more census information, visit the census report titled "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010".
Visit the Complete Census Report
Look up Tribes by State:
|Posted on November 12, 2017 at 8:45 AM|
Panther in the Sky, February 13, 1990
by James Alexander Thom (Author)
What particularly distinguishes this splendidly vigorous and imaginative recreation of the life of the great Shawnee chief Tecumseh (1768-1813) is its bid to capture the spirit of Midwestern Indian culture from within," commented PW.
Copyright 1990 Reed Business Information, Inc.
"Thom shows how, in honest, capable hands, fictionalized biography can add verisimilitude to the life and times of this extraordinary America....The dialogue has the ring of reality about it....Thom is able to get into the thoughts and emotions of his characters...."
LOS ANGELES TIMES
Rich, colorful and bursting with excitement, this remarkable story turns James Alexander Thom's power and passion for American history to the epic story of Tecumseh's life and give us a heart-thumping novel of one man's magnificent destiny--to unite his people in the struggle to save their land and their way of life from the relentless press of the white settlers.
Available on Amazon.com
|Posted on November 12, 2017 at 8:40 AM|
The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography published an interesting article/research on Transculturation of the Anglo-American and American Indian that went in both directions. The influence and adoption of food, cooking, farming, and building. The below is an excerpt, the full publication can be read by following the link below.
The Pennsylvania Magazine
Of History and Biography
Pennsylvania Captives among the Ohio Indians, 1755- 1765
THE PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY Vol. CXXV, No. 3 July 2001
...Pennsylvania captives were fully integrated into Indian society. Most captives were adopted to replace deceased family members and even acquired their social status. Peter Lewney, for instance, was adopted by a Detroit headman to replace a deceased relative and was soon fully integrated into his new family. He was regarded as a respected warrior and encouraged to attend important diplomatic meetings with the French. Several captives even rose to positions of influence in their new homes. George Brown became "one of the chief Men among the Shawnese" and Joshua Renick a Miami headman. Hugh Gibson was adopted to replace a brother of Pisquetomen, an influential Delaware headman.
Their central place in the families of the Ohio Indians meant that they were able to acculturate their families into Anglo-American practices. Although captivity accounts arc often very vague on the routine of the captives' daily lives, it appears that on a day-to-day level they repeatedly influenced the lives of their captors.35Captives were used in a wide variety of tasks, particularly around the home where they were in close contact with their captors. Mary Jemison reported that she was "employed in nursing the children, and doing light work about the house."36 Marie Le Roy and Barbara Leininger were similarly employed planting crops and washing and cooking. Captives also served as teachers of English to their new families. Indeed, by the 1760s many Ohio Indians appear to have mastered the English language with a reasonable degree of fluency. On occasion, the Ohio Indians also took advantage of their ability to read. Robert Rutherford, for instance, a British soldier captured during Pontiac's War, was ordered to translate British documents for his captors. Taken individually these instances may not amount to a dramatic cultural transformation of the lives of Ohio in clans. However, when compounded hundreds of times, with captives present in the majority of Ohio villages, and when added to the flow of captured household goods, captives served to introduce European customs into the Ohio Valley. In Mary Jemi son's case, for instance, this might have amounted to no more than showing her adopted family how to use a fork seized from a colonist's plantation.
The skills of captives were important because the war brought so many new items to the Ohio Valley. Raiders bought back with them household utensils, clothing, agricultural implements, almost anything that they, or the horses they seized, could any. Captives played an important role in showing the Ohio villagers bow to use their new booty. Before the war, domesticated cattle had been very uncommon in the Ohio Valley. The Moravian missionary David Zeisberger commented that in general the Ohio Indians "do not care to keep c-.itd e, for in that case they must remain at home to look after it [sic] and are prevented from going into the forest. 38 However, captives such as Susanna Johnson, captured by the Iroquois, who reported how she spent much of her time tending cows, may have played an important role in informing the Ohio Indians about the core of such animals.39 By the early l 760s James Kenny was able to report how one Delaware headman living on the Ohio River had even constructed "several Stables & Cow houses under one Root" and had become widely known for his skill in making butter. By the late 1760s Anglo-American travelers to the region where commenting on the numerous cattle and pigs that roamed the Ohio woods, and even on the Ohio Indians' skill in producing butter and cheese."°
Captives may also have facilitated an even more fundamental cultural transformation. James Kenny related how in 1761 he came across a village of houses with "Stone Chimneys &several frame Buildings,_,,. Captives like Hugh Gibson, who was employed in producing clapboards, may have played a crucial role in teaching the Ohio Indians these new construction skills. By the late eighteenth century, many Ohio Indians had abandoned traditional building techniques and were living in clapboard houses of European style. Thomas Cape told how some Shawnees even sowed the wheat that they had obtained during raids on the backcountry and attempted to produce their own wheat and bread.42 By the 1760s David Zeisberger reported that the Ohio Indians had even begun to forge their own iron and make hatchets and axes. The adoption of European housing, forging, and agricultural techniques represents a fundamental acculturation of the Ohio Indians. Indeed, Alden T. Vaughan and Daniel K. Richter have argued that" adoption of English-style housing seems to have been one of the last steps in transculturation."43
THE PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY Vol. CXXV, No. 3 July 2001
|Posted on November 12, 2017 at 8:20 AM|
Tecumseh, Treaty of Fort Wayne and the Comet of 1811
In September 1809 William Henry Harrison, then governor of the Indiana Territory, invited the Potawatomi, Lenape, Eel River people, and the Miami to a meeting in Fort Wayne, Indiana. In the negotiations, Harrison promised large subsidies and payments to the tribes if they would cede the lands he was asking for. After two weeks of negotiating, the Potawatomi leaders convinced the Miami to accept the treaty as reciprocity, because the Potawatomi had earlier accepted treaties less advantageous to them at the request of the Miami. Finally the tribes signed the Treaty of Fort Wayne on September 30, 1809, thereby selling the United States over 3,000,000 acres (approximately 12,000 km² chiefly along the Wabash River north of Vincennes, Indiana.
Tecumseh was outraged by the Treaty of Fort Wayne, believing that American Indian land was owned in common by all tribes, an idea advocated in previous years by the Shawnee leader Blue Jacket and the Mohawk leader Joseph Brant. In response, Tecumseh began to expand on the teachings of his brother, known as The Prophet, who called for the tribes to return to their ancestral ways. He began to associate the teachings with the idea of a pan-tribal alliance. Tecumseh traveled widely, urging warriors to abandon the accommodationist chiefs and to join the resistance at Prophetstown.
In August 1810, Tecumseh led 400 armed warriors to confront Governor Harrison in Vincennes. Tecumseh demanded that Harrison nullify the Fort Wayne treaty, threatening to kill the chiefs who had signed it. Harrison refused, stating that the Miami were the owners of the land and could sell it if they so chose. Tecumseh left peacefully, but warned Harrison that he would seek an alliance with the British unless the treaty was nullified.
The Great Comet of 1811, as drawn by William Henry Smyth
In March the Great Comet of 1811 appeared. During the next year, tensions between American colonists and Native Americans rose quickly. Four settlers were murdered on the Missouri River and, in another incident, natives seized a boatload of supplies from a group of traders. Harrison summoned Tecumseh to Vincennes to explain the actions of his allies. In August 1811, the two leaders met, with Tecumseh assuring Harrison that the Shawnee intended to remain at peace with the United States.
Afterward Tecumseh traveled to the Southeast on a mission to recruit allies against the United States among the "Five Civilized Tribes." His name Tekoomsē meant "Shooting Star" or "Panther Across The Sky." He told the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muscogee, and many others that the comet of March 1811 had signaled his coming. He also said that the people would see a sign proving that the Great Spirit had sent him.
While Tecumseh was traveling, both sides readied for the Battle of Tippecanoe. Harrison assembled a small force of army regulars and militia in preparation to combat the Native forces. On November 6, 1811, Harrison led this army of about 1,000 men to Prophetstown, Indiana, hoping to disperse Tecumseh's confederacy. Early next morning, forces under The Prophet prematurely attacked Harrison's army at the Tippecanoe River near the Wabash. Though outnumbered, Harrison repulsed the attack, forcing the Natives to retreat and abandon Prophetstown. Harrison's men burned the village and returned home. This was the end of Tecumseh's dream of a united native alliance against the whites.
On December 11, 1811, the New Madrid earthquake shook the Muscogee lands and the Midwest. While the interpretation of this event varied from tribe to tribe, they agreed that the powerful earthquake had to have meant something. The earthquake and its aftershocks helped the Tecumseh resistance movement as the Muscogee and other Native American tribes believed it was a sign that the Shawnee must be supported and that this was the sign Tecumseh had prophesied.
The New Madrid earthquake was interpreted by the Muscogee as a reason to support the Shawnee resistance.
|Posted on October 30, 2017 at 8:30 AM|
Tecumseh - Give Thanks
When you rise in the morning, give thanks for the light, for your life, for your strength.
Give thanks for your food and for the joy of living.
If you see no reason to give thanks, the fault lies in yourself.
|Posted on October 27, 2017 at 8:25 AM|
Pontiac's Rebellion Summary and Definition: Pontiac's Rebellion, aka the Pontiac War (1763 - 1766), broke out in the Ohio River Valley. Chief Pontiac (1720-1769) was a powerful and respected head chief of the Ottawa, Chippewa and Potawatomi. Chief Pontiac led a rebellion of a number of tribes against the British and the colonists. Pontiac's Rebellion followed the defeat of the French in the French Indian War (1754-1763) and the conclusion of the series of conflicts referred to as the French and Indian Wars. Many of the Native American Indians, primarily in the Great Lakes region, had close trading relationships with France and were appalled to find that the lands were now under the control of the British. Pontiac's Rebellion was an attempt by an alliance of some Native American Indian tribes to prevent Great Britain from occupying the land previously claimed by France. Pontiac's War failed but the rebellion hastened the implementation of the Royal Proclamation of 1763 establishing a massive boundary called the Proclamation Line. The Proclamation of 1763 was designed to calm the fears of American Native Indians by halting the westward expansion by colonists whilst expanding the lucrative fur trade.
Names of Native American tribes in Pontiac's Rebellion
The names of the tribes who supported Chief Pontiac's rebellion were:
Tribes of the Great Lakes region: Ottawa, Chippewa (Ojibwa), Potawatomi, and Huron
Tribes of Ohio region: Delaware (Lenape), Shawnee and Mingo
Tribes located in eastern Illinois region: Miami, Kickapoo, Mascoten and Piankashaw
The tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy were British allies and did not want to become involved with Pontiac's War. However, many of the Seneca tribe decided to join the rebellion.
Pontiac's Rebellion - Pays d'en haut
The Native Indian tribes involved in Pontiac's Rebellion lived within an area controlled by New France before their defeat in the French Indian War known as the 'Pays d'en haut' meaning the upper country.
Visit the Official Website of the Piqua Shawnee
|Posted on October 26, 2017 at 8:30 AM|
How did the Town of Piqua get its name?
Rosalie Yoakam, Contributing Writer
Wednesday, June 25, 2014
A town grew out of the wilderness of Miami County after one pioneer built a log house near the Great Miami River in 1798.
Job Gard, a former soldier under “Mad Anthony Wayne,” was the pioneer. The land was about eight miles north of Troy on the west bank of the Great Miami River where there was a bend in the river.
The earth in this place had been roughly worked by the Shawnee Indians for several years and they raised corn there.
Gard built a log cabin, improved the fields and put up rail fences. Soon Gard sold his holdings to John Manning and ventured off into the backwoods again.
Other settlers moved into the area and built log cabins near each other for protection from the Indians. They also erected a block house and stockade for defense in case of attack. The building was made of sturdy logs and had no windows. The picket stockade had a huge gate that was secured with a padlock the size of a dinner plate. These structures were located near the river on the south side of present day East Water Street.
In 1807 the village, consisting of seven houses, was surveyed by Armstrong Brandon and named Washington. A short distance north was a Shawnee town called Piqua.
Piqua means “ashes” in the Shawnee language. An old legend explains the naming of the Shawnee village. Many years before, the Shawnee had captured a member of a tribe they were warring against and burned him at the stake. Then, to their amazement a human figure began to slowly grow from the ashes of their victim. The natives exclaimed, “Otatha-he-wagh-piqua!” or “He comes out of the ashes.”
In 1811 John Johnston moved his family to land he had purchased close to Washington, Ohio. There he built a brick house near a large spring on a site named Johnston’s Prairie. A year later the War of 1812 occurred and a new Indian agency was established near Washington, Johnston was appointed the agent.
About six thousand neutral Native Americans were moved to his area and Johnston worked to keep them friendly to the United States. His role was so crucial that several British assassination plans to eliminate him were hatched but thwarted by his Native American friends.
The increase in business, due to Johnston’s work during The War of 1812, helped the growth of Washington.
By 1816 the Shawnee village of Piqua had been abandoned, and the citizens of Washington asked the state legislature to let them change the name of their town to Piqua. Their request was granted.
Piqua was incorporated by the Ohio General Assembly in 1823. Thus, a town grew from the beginning work of one man, Gard, who perhaps never knew the outcome of his labor.
Visit the Official Website Piquashawnee.com
|Posted on October 18, 2017 at 8:25 AM|
Bhamwiki, now in its tenth year, is an encyclopedic resource for anyone curious about Birmingham, Alabama and the region around it. We aim for accuracy, objectivity, and accessibility as we work steadily to expand our coverage.
Bhamwiki has more than twelve thousand individual entries to explore. Peruse some of the featured articles, or newest entries. Look at what happened on this date in Birmingham's history. Take a chance by clicking on "random page" to the left. Or, if you know what you're looking for, try using the search box, or you can even start at the top and work your way down.
The Piqua Shawnee (officially the Picqua Sept of Ohio Shawnee) is one of nine indigenous tribes recognized by the Alabama Indian Affairs Commission. Evidence for Shawnee settlement in present-day Alabama dates to the late 17th century.
The Shawnee tribe was centered in the area of present day Indiana and Ohio. The Picqua or Peckuwe Sept was one of five tribal divisions named for a legendary evil man who was sent back from death to lead a group of Shawnee to walk in harmony with the great spirit. He appeared to the group in a cloud of smoke billowing from the coals of their fire. "Peckuwe" means "man who rises from the ashes."
The tribe was forced twice to scatter, first by the Iroquis in the 1660s. Some settled in Alabama, where they lived among and were often grouped with other tribes as "Creeks" by traders in the territories. The Alabama Shawnee, unlike many of their tribesmen north of the Tennessee River, did not return to Ohio after peace was made. A new wave arrived in the late 18th and early 19th century, seeking refuge from the continuing fighting between French, English and American interests in King George's War and the French and Indian War.
It was among the Shawnee that an outbreak of smallpox introduced by infected blankets from Fort Pitt during Pontiac's rebellion took its greatest toll. Other tribes which had allied with the French in King George's War had already been exposed to the disease. Smallpox spread with the Shawnee into Creek territory in the South, and then among the Chickasaw and Choctaw and to British colonists as well.
After the Creek Indian War most indigenous people were resettled in the Oklahoma territory, but many were able to avoid resettlement or later returned. The Picqua Sept now represents a small number of interrelated families that preserve Shawnee heritage and live scattered around the south, midwest and Canada. The tribe was officially recognized in Kentucky in 1991 and in Alabama in 2001.
Visit the Official Website of the Piqua Shawnee Tribe